US:Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know NIDA / August,2007 Contents * A Letter to Parents * What is marijuana? Aren't there different kinds? * What are the current slang terms for marijuana? * How is marijuana used? * How many people smoke marijuana? At what age do children generally start? * How can I tell if my child has been using marijuana? * Why do young people use marijuana? * Does using marijuana lead to other drugs? * What are the effects of marijuana? * What happens after a person smokes marijuana? * How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? * Can a user have a bad reaction? * How is marijuana harmful? * How does marijuana affect driving? * What are the long-term effects of marijuana? * What about pregnancy? Will smoking marijuana hurt the baby? * What happens if a nursing mother uses marijuana? * How does marijuana affect the brain? * Can the drug cause mental illness? * Do marijuana users lose their motivation? * Can a person become addicted to marijuana? * What is "tolerance" for marijuana? * Are there treatments to help marijuana users? * Can marijuana be used as medicine? * How can I prevent my child from getting involved with marijuana? * Talking to your children about marijuana * Resources A Letter to Parents Following a troubling increase in marijuana abuse in the 1990s among U.S. teens, recent findings have shown more encouraging trends. For example, past-year use has fallen significantly among students in the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades since 2001: it has dropped by 24 percent among 8th-graders, 23 percent among 10th-graders, and 15 percent among 12th-graders. Perceived risk of harm from smoking marijuana regularly remained stable for all three grades from 2005 to 2006, and perceived availability of marijuana fell significantly among 10th-graders, from 72.6 percent in 2005 to 70.7 percent in 2006. Even with these encouraging trends, marijuana is still the illegal drug most often abused in the United States. Its continued high prevalence rate, particularly among teens, indicates that we still have a long way to go. In addition, because many parents of present-day teens used marijuana when they were in college, they often find it difficult to talk about marijuana with their children and to set strict ground rules against it. This conversation must begin early, as marijuana use today often starts at a young age—with more potent forms of the drug now available to these children and adolescents. Parents need to recognize that marijuana use is a serious threat, and they need to tell their children not to use it. We at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) are pleased to offer these two short booklets, Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and Marijuana: Facts for Teens, for parents and their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana. Although it is best to talk about drugs when children are young, it is never too late to talk about the dangers of drug use. Talking to our children about drug abuse is not always easy, but it is very important. I hope these booklets can help. Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse Fact: There are stronger forms of marijuana available to adolescents today than in the 1970s or 1908s. Stronger marijuana means stronger effects. Q: What is marijuana? Are there different kinds? A: Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Before the 1960s, many Americans had never heard of marijuana, but today it is the most often used illegal drug in the United States. Cannabis is a term that refers to marijuana and other drugs made from the same plant. Strong forms of cannabis include sinsemilla (sin-seh-me-yah), hashish (“hash” for short), and hash oil. All forms of cannabis are mind-altering (psychoactive) drugs; they all contain THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main active chemical in marijuana. They also contain more than 400 other chemicals. Marijuana’s effect on the user depends on the strength or potency of the THC it contains. THC potency has increased since the 1970s and continues to increase still. The strength of the drug is measured by the average amount of THC in test samples confiscated by law enforcement agencies. For the year 2006, most ordinary marijuana contained, on average, 7 percent THC. Q: What are the current slang terms for marijuana? A: There are many different names for marijuana. Slang terms for drugs change quickly, and they vary from one part of the country to another. They may even differ across sections of a large city. Terms from years ago, such as pot, herb, grass, weed, Mary Jane, and reefer, are still used. You might also hear the names Aunt Mary, skunk, boom, gangster, kif, or ganja. There are also street names for different strains or “brands” of marijuana, such as “Texas tea,” “Maui wowie,” and “chronic.” One book of American slang lists more than 200 terms for various kinds of marijuana. Q: How is marijuana used? A: Most users roll loose marijuana into a cigarette (called a joint or a nail) or smoke it in a pipe or a water pipe, sometimes referred to as a bong. Some users mix marijuana into foods or use it to brew a tea. Another method is to slice open a cigar and replace the tobacco with marijuana, making what’s called a blunt. When the blunt is smoked with a 40-oz. bottle of malt liquor, it is called a “B-40.” Marijuana cigarettes or blunts sometimes contain other substances as well, including crack cocaine—a combination known by various street names, such as “primos” or “woolies.” Joints and blunts sometimes are dipped in PCP and are called “happy sticks,” “wicky sticks,” “love boat,” “dust,” “wets,” or “tical.” Q: How many people smoke marijuana? At what age do children generally start? A: A recent government survey tells us: * Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug in the United States. Nearly 98 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried marijuana at least once. * Over 14 million had used the drug in the month before the survey. The Monitoring the Future Survey, which is conducted yearly, includes students from 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. In 2006, the survey found that 15.7 percent of 8th-graders have tried marijuana at least once, and among 10th-graders, 14.2 percent were “current” users (that is, have used within the past month). Among 12th-graders, 42.3 percent have tried marijuana at least once, and about 18 percent were current users. Other researchers have found that use of marijuana and other drugs usually peaks in the late teens and early twenties, then declines in later years. Fact: Research shows that more than 40 percent of teenagers try marijuana before they graduate from high school. Q: How can I tell if my child has been using marijuana? A: There are some signs you might be able to see. If someone is high on marijuana, he or she might: * seem dizzy and have trouble walking; * seem silly and giggly for no reason; * have very red, bloodshot eyes; and * have a hard time remembering things that just happened. When the early effects fade, the user can become very sleepy. Parents should be aware of changes in their child’s behavior, although this may be difficult with teens. Parents should look for withdrawal, depression, fatigue, carelessness with grooming, hostility, and deteriorating relationships with family members and friends. In addition, changes in academic performance, increased absenteeism or truancy, lost interest in sports or other favorite activities, and changes in eating or sleeping habits could be related to drug use. However, these signs may also indicate problems other than use of drugs. In addition, parents should be aware of: * signs of drugs and drug paraphernalia, including pipes and rolling papers; * odor on clothes and in the bedroom; * use of incense and other deodorizers; * use of eye drops; and * clothing, posters, jewelry, etc., promoting drug use. Q: Why do young people use marijuana? A: Children and young teens start using marijuana for many reasons. Curiosity and the desire to fit into a social group are common reasons. Certainly, youngsters who have already begun to smoke cigarettes and/or use alcohol are at high risk for marijuana use. Also, our research suggests that the use of alcohol and drugs by other family members plays a strong role in whether children start using drugs. Parents, grandparents, and older brothers and sisters in the home are models for children to follow. Some young people who take drugs do not get along with their parents. Some have a network of friends who use drugs and urge them to do the same (peer pressure). All aspects of a child’s environment—home, school, neighborhood—help to determine whether the child will try drugs. Children who become heavily involved with marijuana can become dependent, making it difficult for them to quit. Others mention psychological coping as a reason for their use—to deal with anxiety, anger, depression, boredom, and so forth. But marijuana use is not an effective method for coping with life’s problems, and staying high can be a way of simply not dealing with the problems and challenges of growing up. Researchers have found that children and teens (both male and female) who are physically and sexually abused are at greater risk than other young people of using marijuana and other drugs and of beginning drug use at an early age. Back to the Top of the Page Q: Does using marijuana lead to other drugs? A: Long-term studies of high school students and their patterns of drug use show that very few young people use other drugs without first trying marijuana, alcohol, or tobacco. Though few young people use cocaine, for example, the risk of doing so is much greater for youth who have tried marijuana than for those who have never tried it. Although research has not fully explained this association, growing evidence suggests a combination of biological, social, and psychological factors is involved. Researchers are examining the possibility that long-term marijuana use may create changes in the brain that make a person more at risk of becoming addicted to other drugs, such as alcohol or cocaine. Although many young people who use marijuana do not go on to use other drugs, further research is needed to determine who will be at greatest risk. Q: What are the effects of marijuana? A: The effects of marijuana on each person depend on the: * type of cannabis and how much THC it contains; * way the drug is taken (by smoking or eating); * experience and expectations of the user; * setting where the drug is used; and * use of other drugs and/or alcohol. Some people feel nothing at all when they first try marijuana. Others may feel high (intoxicated and/or euphoric). It is common for marijuana users to become engrossed with ordinary sights, sounds, or tastes, and trivial events may seem extremely interesting or funny. Time seems to pass very slowly, so minutes feel like hours. Sometimes the drug causes users to feel thirsty and very hungry—an effect called “the munchies.” Q: What happens after a person smokes marijuana? A: Within a few minutes of inhaling marijuana smoke, the user will likely feel, along with intoxication, a dry mouth, rapid heartbeat, some loss of coordination and balance, and a slower than normal reaction time. Blood vessels in the eye expand, so the user’s eyes look red. For some people, marijuana raises blood pressure slightly and can double the normal heart rate. This effect can be greater when other drugs are mixed with marijuana, but users do not always know when that happens. As the immediate effects fade, usually after 2 to 3 hours, the user may become sleepy. Q: How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? A: THC in marijuana is readily absorbed by fatty tissues in various organs. Generally, traces (metabolites) of THC can be detected by standard urine testing methods several days after a smoking session. In heavy, chronic users, however, traces can sometimes be detected for weeks after they have stopped using marijuana. Q: Can a user have a bad reaction? A: Yes. Some users, especially those who are new to the drug or in a strange setting, may suffer acute anxiety and have paranoid thoughts. This is more likely to happen with high doses of THC. These scary feelings will fade as the drug’s effects wear off. In rare cases, a user who has taken a very high dose of the drug can have severe psychotic symptoms and need emergency medical treatment. Other kinds of bad reactions can occur when marijuana is mixed with other drugs, such as PCP or cocaine. Fact: Marijuana has adverse effects on many of the skills required for driving a car. Driving while high can lead to car accidents. So can scratching your nose. Q: How is marijuana harmful? A: Marijuana can be harmful in a number of ways, through immediate effects and through damage to health over time. Marijuana hinders the user’s short-term memory (memory for recent events), and he or she may have trouble handling complex tasks. With the use of more potent varieties of marijuana, even simple tasks can be difficult. Because of the drug’s effects on perceptions and reaction time, users could be involved in auto crashes. Drug users also may become involved in risky sexual behaviors, which could lead to the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Under the influence of marijuana, students may find it hard to study and learn. Young athletes could find their performance is off; timing, movements, and coordination are all affected by THC. This is the actual NIDA propaganda page that people read when they seek information from our government on marijuana. This is after years of searching for harm in marijuana and the best they can come up with is "may be" or "could be".